The Scientific Research Journal (SRJ) (ISSN:1675-7009) is an open-access international refereed journal, published by UiTM Press for the Institute of Research Management & Innovation (IRMI), Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Malaysia. SRJ is published biannually, online and in print in June and December. The SRJ published findings on research in the field of smart materials, processes, designs, analysis, renewable energy that contribute to environment conservation and sustainable development of human being.